Resources for Teaching about the Middle Ages

Here are lists of people, places, and dates to include in a unit study about the Middle Ages.

People to Remember from the Middle Ages

Emperor Justinian - Byzantine emperor from 527 A.D. to 565 A.D.. Justinian collected Roman laws under one code.

King Arthur - Legendary king of medieval Britain

Ethelbert (c. 560 - 616) - King of Kent who was the first English king to convert to Christianity

Augustine of Canterbury (? - 604 A.D.) Benedictine monk who was sent to England as a missionary by Pope Gregory the Great to convert the English to Christianity

Muhammad - (c.570 - 632) - Founder of the religion of Islam

Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) (c.688 - 741) Ruler of northern Gaul who defeated a Muslim army that was invading Europe from Spain at the Battle of Tours, which stopped the Muslims from expanding into western Europe

Charlemagne (742 - 814) King of the Franks who conquered much of western Europe and united it into an empire. He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800 A.D. by Pope Leo III.

Alfred the Great (849 - 899) King of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex who saved his kingdom from the Danish Vikings

Hugh Capet (c. 939 - 996) - King of France and founder of the Capetian dynasty

Leif Ericson (c. 970 - c.1020) - Norse explorer who is regarded as the first European to land in North America (excluding Greenland)

William I (William the Conqueror) (reigned 1066 - 1087) -First Norman king of England who invaded England in 1066

Battle of Hastings (1066) - Battle in which the Normans, led by Duke William II, conquered the English, led by Harold II

First Crusade - Military expedition from 1096 to 1099 by European knights to recapture the Holy Land from the Turks

Stephen (reigned 1135 - 1154) - Grandson of William the Conqueror who was king of England from 1135 to 1154. His cousin Matilda contested his claim to the throne, and his reign was disturbed by civil war.

Matilda (1102 - 1167) - Henry I's daughter and William the Conqueror's granddaugter who should have inherited the throne. Her fight to regain the throne led to a civil war.

Henry II of England (reigned 1154–1189) - King of England from 1154 to 1189 who reorganized the justice system in England and gained control over his nobles by making them tear down their castles. His attempts to gain control over the Church were opposed by Thomas a Becket.

Eleanor of Aquitaine - Duchess of Aquitaine who married Louis VII of France. After their divorce, she married Henry II of England. She was the mother of King Richard I and King John.

Thomas a Becket (1120 - 1170) - Archbishop of Canterbury who opposed King Henry II. He was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral by four of King Henry II's knights.

Third Crusade (1189 - 1192) An attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin

Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted ) (reigned 1189 to 1199) - King of England who joined the Third Crusade.

Saladin - Muslim leader who recaptured Jerusalem in 1187

King John (reigned 1199 to 1216) - King of England from 1199 to 1216 who signed the Magna Carta on June 15, 1215.

Magna Carta - English charter signed by King John in 1215 which limited the king's power and gave certain basic rights to freeman

Genghis Khan - (c. 1162 - 1227) Founder of the Mongol Empire

Louis IX (Saint Louis) (1214 - 1270) - King of France from 1226 to 1270)

Marco Polo (c.1254 - 1324)- Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan

William Wallace (1272 - 1305) Scottish knight who is known for leading a resistance during the Wars of Scottish Independence

King Robert the Bruce (1274 - 1329) - King of Scotland from 1306 to 1329 who defeated the English army under Edward II at Bannockburn

Edward III (reigned 1327 to 1377) - King of England at the beginning of the Hundred Years' War against France.

Edward, the Black Prince (1330 - 1376) - Eldest son of Edward III who was created Prince of Wales in 1343.

Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453) A series of separate wars lasting from 1337 to 1453 between England and France

The Black Death - Plague that killed about a third of the population of Europe in the 1340s.

Battle of Crecy (1346) - First great English victory of the Hundred Years' War

Joan of Arc (c.1412 - 1431) Peasant girl who led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War

Henry V of England (reigned 1413 - 1422) King of England who defeated the French at the Battle at Agincourt, and married Catherine of Valois, the daughter of the King of France, in an attempt to bring peace to both nations.

Battle of Agincourt (1415) Major English victory against the French during the Hundred Years' War

Wars of the Roses (between 1455 and 1485) - Civil war between the House of York and the House of Lancaster

Richard III (reigned 1483 to 1485) Last king of the House of York and the last Plantagenet. While he was king, his nephews were locked in the tower of London and were never seen again. Many think that RIchard had them murdered.

Battle of Bosworth Field (1485) Last battle of the Wars of the Roses in which Richard III was killed, marking the end of the Plantagenet dynasty.

Henry VII (reigned 1485 to 1509) First monarch of the House of Tudor


Places and Terms to Know

Constantinople - City founded by Constantine which was the capital of the Byzantine empire.

Hagia Sophia - Church built in Constantinople on the orders of the Emperor Justinian.

Mecca - A city in Saudi Arabia which is the birthplace of Muhammad and a holy city of Islam

Doomesday Book - The record of the great survey of England which was completed in 1086 under the direction of William I of England

Westminster Abbey - Traditional place of coronation and burial site for English monarchs

Tower of London -Castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London which was built by William the Conqueror in the 1080s and was often used as a prison.

Feudalism - A system in the Middle Ages in which peasants, or serfs, worked on land belonging to a lord in exchange for protection

Knights Templar - An order of knights founded around 1118 to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land


Dates to Remember for the Middle Ages

476 A.D. - End of Roman Empire in the West

527 A.D. - Emperor Justinian becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire

c. 550 A.D - King Arthur (if he really existed, he may have lived around this time

590 A.D - Gregory the Great becomes pope.  He later sends Augustine of Canterbury to England.

622 A.D. - Muhammad flees to Medina

732 A.D - Charles the Hammer stops the Muslim advance at Tours

800 A.D. - Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III

871 A.D. - Alfred the Great becomes King of Wessex

1066 A.D. - William of Normandy conquers Saxon England

1099 A.D. - First Crusade takes Jerusalem

1215 A.D. - Magna Cartasigned by King John

1295 A.D. - Marco Polo returns to Venice

1337-1453 - Hundred Years' War between England and France

1340s A.D - Black Death devastates Europe

1428 A.D. - Joan of Arc leads the French armies to victory over England

1453 A.D - Fall of Constantinople

1455-1485 - Wars of the Roses

1481 A.D. - Spanish Inquisition established

1492 A.D. - Columbus discovers the New World


Here is a link to a Quia matching game for dates to remember for the Middle Ages.

Other Resources for the Middle Ages

Canterbury Tales - This website has a link where you can listen to the General Prologue of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales in Middle English.

The Kings and Queens of England, an online book by Wikijunior, starts with Alfred the Great and ends with Prince William of Wales. has lots of links for the Middle Ages.

Castles for Kids has information about the parts of a castle and the people that lived in castles. This site also has links to coloring pages.

This website about Skipton Castle has very nice coloring pages and activities.

Castle Coloring Pages - This page by Activity Village has several castle coloring pages that you can print and color.

Knights Theme - Activity Village has a page that has links to coloring pages, crafts,and other printables about knights.

Chainmail Patterns - This website has instructions for making different types of chainmail.

BBC - Primary History has pages about the Vikings

Viking Activities - The Forest Room is a blog that has a post with Viking activities, books, crafts ideas, and books.

Wallace and Bruce Interactive Game - BBC has an interactive game that helps students learn about Wallace, Bruce and the Wars of Independence from 1286 to 1328. has biographies, timelines, and lots of other informations about the kings and queens of England, Scotland, Wales, and the United Kingdom. The website also has a quiz for the Royal House and dates for each King or Queen.

Middle Ages Crossword Puzzle



Resources for Teaching about the Middle Ages



Crossword Puzzle for the Middle Ages

Crossword Puzzle about the Middle Ages