Teaching Resources for Ancient Rome

Here are lists of people, places, and dates to include in a unit study about the Roman Empire.

People to Remember from Ancient Rome

Romulus and Remus - Legendary founders of Rome

Hannibal (c.248 BC– c.183 BC) - Carthaginian general who led his army across the Alps to invade Italy

Scipio Africanus (235 BC - 183 BC)- Roman general who led his army to Carthage and defeated Hannibal

Cato the Elder (234–149 BC) -Roman senator who insisted that Carthage was still a threat to Rome even in its weakened state after the second Punic war and should be totally destroyed.

Spartacus (died 71 BC) - Gladiator from Thrace who led a slave revolt in Italy

Pompey (106 BC - 48 BC) - Roman general who was part of the First Triumvirate with Crassus and Julius Caesar. He later fought against Julius Caesar in a civil war.

Julius Caesar (100 BC - 44 BC) -Politician and general of the Roman Republic who extended the Roman Empire and became dictator of Rome

Marc Anthony (83 BC – 30 BC) - Roman general and politician who was a co-ruler of Rome after the death of Julius Caesar. He joined forces with Cleopatra, whom he married, but was defeated at the Battle of Actium by Octavian.

Cleopatra (69 BC - 30 BC) Queen of Egypt who had Julius Caesar's child, and married Marc Anthony

Marcus Brutus (85 BC - 42 BC) - Roman leader who helped murder Julius Caesar

Virgil (70 BC - 19 BC) - Roman poet who was the author of the Aeneid

Caesar Augustus (63 BC - 14 AD) - First emperor of Rome

Claudius - Roman emperor from 41 AD to 54 AD who conquered Britain

Nero (37AD - 68 AD) Roman emperor between 54 - 68 AD. who was obsessed with power and persecuted Christians. He is believed to have set fire to Rome.

Josephus (37 AD - c. 100 AD) - Jewish general and historian who led a revolt against Roman rule in Judea, but later became a citizen of Rome

Vespasian Flavius ( 9 AD to 79 AD) Roman emperor after Nero who ordered the building of many public buildings, including the Colosseum.

Hadrian (76 AD - 138 AD) - Roman emperor from 117 to 138 AD who ordered a 73-mile-long wall built in Britain to mark the northern boundary of the Roman empire and to protect the Britons from barbarian invasion

Diocletian (c.244 AD - 311 AD)- Roman emperor from 284 to 305 AD who divided the Roman empire into two parts

Constantine (272 - 337 AD) - Emperor of Rome who moved his capital from Rome to Constantinople and made Christianity a legal religion in the Roman Empire

Augustine of Hippo (354-430) Biship of Hippo Regius in North Africa who wrote Confessions and The City of God and who taught that people are saved only through God's grace

Attila the Hun (406–453 AD) - King of the Huns; a barbarian tribe that invaded the Roman Empire


Places and Terms to Know about Ancient Rome

Palatine Hill - The centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome where, according to Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus were found in a cave by the she-wolf that kept them alive

Tiber River - River which flows through the city of Rome

Etruscans - People who lived in the northern part of Italy before the Romans

Carthage -Ancient powerful trading city on the north African coast which was founded by the Phoenicians and destroyed and rebuilt by the Romans.

Punic Wars - Three wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic over trade in the Mediterranean.

Gaul - The Roman name for the area that is now France, Belgium, and Luxembourg

Rubicon - Shallow river in northeastern Italy

"Crossing the Rubicon" - a phrase that means "past the point of no return", referring to when Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 B.C.

Roman Republic - Ancient Rome between 509 BC until 27 BC, between the time when the Romans drove the Etruscan king, Tarquin, from power and when Augustus became the first Roman emperor.

Battle of Actium - Battle in 31 BC in the Ionian Sea in which Octavian's fleet defeated Marc Antony and Cleopatra

Colosseum - Amphitheater in Rome which was built between 75 - 80 A.D.

Gladiators - Slaves or captives in ancient Rome who fought to the death to entertain the public

Patrician - Roman citizen from the priviledged upper class

Plebeian - Roman citizens who were not Patricians

Tribune - A representative elected by plebeians

Pantheon - A temple with a domed roof built for all the gods of Ancient Rome

Pax Romana - A latin phrase which means "Roman Peace"

Forum -The public space or marketplace in the middle of a Roman city

Atrium The open area in the center of a Roman house

Fresco - A wall painting done on wet plaster

Mosaic - A picture created by putting together small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials

Toga - A loose outer garment that was worn by Romans

Aqueduct - A large structure built to carry water from one place to another

Circus Maximus - Huge racing arena in Rome where chariot races were held

Mount Vesuvius - A volcano in southern Italy which erupted in 79 A.D. and completely buried the city of Pompeii in volcanic ash

Pompeii - A city in southwestern Italy which was buried in volcanic ash when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D.

Hadrian's Wall - A wall built across northern Britain to keep out warring tribes

Byzantine Empire - The eastern Roman Empire

Constantinople - The city which Constantine built and established as the new capital of Rome


Dates to Remember for Ancient Rome

c.753 B.C -Rome founded

509 B.C. - Roman Republic founded

73 B.C. - Spartacus leads slaves in a revolt

44 B.C. - Julius Caesar is murdered

27 B.C. - Caesar Augustus becomes first Roman Emperor: Beginning of the Roman Empire

c. 33 A.D - Jesus is crucified in Jerusalem

43 A.D. - Britain is conquered by the Romans

64 A.D. - Great fire in Rome, Persecution of Christians begins

79 A.D - Mount Vesuvius erupts and destroys Pompeii and Herculaneum

80 A.D. - Colosseium opens in Rome

312 A.D. - Constantine allows Christian worship in the Roman Empire

476 A.D. - End of the Western Roman Empire


Quotes to Remember

"Veni, vidi, vici." ("I came, I saw, I conquered.") - Julius Caesar

"Delenda est Carthago." ("Carthage must be destroyed.") - Cato the Elder


Other Teaching Resources for Ancient Rome

Mrdowling.com has a great website that includes lessons about Ancient Rome.

knowtheromans.co.uk - This website contains information about many different areas of Roman life and beliefs. The site also has online quizzes and links to videos.

Mrdonn.org has online games, activities, links to video clips, and lessons about Ancient Rome.

BBC has a page called Primary History: Rome. It has activities, a glossary, a timeline and links to videos about Rome.

Here is a link to vocabulary words and flashcards for Beric the Briton, by G. A. Henty


Flashcards for Roman Numerals: